nstructions for raising orchards

Since it is a multi-year culture it is necessary to predict all the elements which are crucial for success before the orchards are raised. When the mistakes in setting up an orchard are noticed too late they cannot be corrected.


The quality of the seedlings is the primary and the most important factor in raising orchards. Planting stock must be healthy, of high quality and purchased at the nursery which has a tradition of producing the same. Species, varieties and rootstocks should be chosen according to the type of soil, position and future breeding system of the orchard.


Special attention should be given to the preparation of land. Land must be free of weeds, and before establishing an orchard, deeply fertalised and ploughed early in autumn. Before planting it is necessary to perform leveling, cultivating many times in both directions, and then choosing the direction of lines, dispensing, digging pits and planting.

Time of Planting

Planting fruit trees is mainly done in autumn from the time leaves start falling until the vegetation begins in spring. For the southern region autumn planting is more recommended. In autumn there is a better choice of planting material in terms of assortment. The shape and size of the pits are not crucial to the success of planting if the soil is prepared in the above-mentioned manner. With the soil prepared in this way watering is not necessary.

Preparation of Seedlings for Planting and Cultivation Techniques

Before planting it is necessary to prepare seedlings for planting by restoring cuts to the vessels, removing the damaged parts of the vessels and soaking them in the mushy mixture of dung, clay and water. The tree should be truncated to the desired height, according to the type of the future orchard, and temporary side branches should be removed. Seedlings should be planted at the depth they were planted at in the nursery, so that the place of grafting is at the surface level. When planting, the soil around the trees and above the root system should be treaded on well to get the air out of the pit, and make the soil stick to the vessels.